Climate and Geography

The relief

Geography of Uruguay

The country has a size of 176,000 square kilometers and most of its territory is flat with large tracts of land. Its landscape is made up of wide fields of crops mixed with lakes, lagoons and small rivers. The Negro River that crosses the country from east to west stands out, the Uruguay River that borders the country on the west acting as a border with Argentina and the Río de la Plata, followed by the Atlantic Ocean, towards the south of the country. The country’s geography has directly influenced its economy since Uruguay’s main resources are closely related to agricultural and livestock activities.

Uruguay is characterized by its homogeneity and flatness and is located in the transition zone between the plains of the countryside to the south and the Brazilian shield to the north. There are two large structural areas that are the peneplains and the plains. The peneplains are the remains of the old mountain ranges, which provide the general geography of the country with these gently undulating reliefs with rivers that are very embedded in the landscape. The plains are the product of the accumulation of sediments contributed by the different rivers that cross Uruguay. The plains are remarkably flat, but more undulating inland than on the coast.

The weather in Uruguay

In Uruguay, the four seasons are clearly differentiated and the average annual temperature in Uruguay is 17°C, varying from about 20°C in the northwestern zone, to about 16°C on the country’s south coast. The thermal amplitudes are greater in the north than in the south of the country. This is because in the south, the water from the Río de la Plata and the Atlantic Ocean act as thermal regulators.

The highest temperatures occur in summer from December 21 to March 20. The average maximum and minimum temperatures in Montevideo are 28°C and 18°C ​​respectively, with an absolute maximum of 42°C. In the northwest of the country, in the city of Salto, the values ​​are 32°C and 18°C, with an absolute maximum of 43°C. The lowest temperatures occur in winter during the months of June, July and August. The average maximum and minimum temperatures in Montevideo are 14°C and 6°C respectively with an absolute minimum of −4°C. It is important to indicate that high humidity makes the thermal sensation colder. In the northwest of the country in the city of Salto, the values ​​are more moderate, with maximum and minimum temperatures of 17°C and 7°C.

Regarding rainfall, May is the month with the most rain and December the month with the least rain. Precipitations have their minimum values en 1,000mm in the south of the country on the coast and its maximum values ​​at 1,400mm in the north of the country on the border with Brazil. Uruguay has a very humid climate that ranges between 70% and 75% in the whole country. July with 80% the most humid month and January with 65% the driest month. During the day the humidity oscillates around 45% and during the night we approach values ​​of 90% or higher.

Sea Uruguay